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Contents:CHAPTER PAGEI. The Volcanic Eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 1II. Some Effects of the Eruption of Krakatoa 12III. The Volcanic Island of Hawaii 26IV. The Volcanic Island of Iceland 46V. Vesuvius 58VI. Other Volcanoes of the Mediterranean 73VII. Orizaba, Popocatepetl, Ixtaccihuatl, and Other Volcanoes of Mexico 85VIII. Coseguina and Other Volcanoes of Central America 91IX. The Volcanic Mountains of South America 97X. Volcanoes of the United States 105XI. The Catastrophe of Martinique and the Volcanic Islands of the Lesser Antilles 117XII. Some Other Noted Volcanic Mountains 125XIII. Jorullo, a Young Volcanic Mountain 130XIV. Mid-Ocean Volcanic Islands 137XV. Submarine Volcanoes 141XVI. Distribution of the Earths Volcanoes 148XVII. Volcanoes of the Geological Past 153XVIII. LaPlaces Nebular Hypothesis 157XIX. The Earths Heated Interior, the Cause of Volcanoes 165XX. Some Forms of Lava 178XXI. Mud Volcanoes and Hot Springs 193XXII. The Volcanoes of the Moon 207XXIII. Earthquakes 219XXIV. Some of the Phenomena of Earthquakes 231XXV. The Earthquake of Calabria in 1783 245XXVI. The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 252XXVII. The Earthquake of Cutch, India, in 1819 257XXVIII. The San Francisco Earthquake of April 18, 1906 262[Pg viii]XXIX. Some Other Notable Earthquakes 269XXX. Sodom and Gomorrah and the Cities of the Plain 281XXXI. Instruments for Recording and Measuring Earthquake Shocks 290XXXII. Seaquakes 296CHAPTER ITHE VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF KRAKATOA IN 1883Krakatoa is a little island in the Straits of Sunda, about thirty miles west of the island of Java, and nearly the same distance east of the island of Sumatra. It is uninhabited and very small, measuring about five miles in length and less than three miles in width. Its total area is only thirteen square miles. This little piece of land made itself famous by what took place on it during the month of August, 1883.Krakatoa is one of the many islands that form the large island chain known as the Sunda Islands. The most important islands of this chain are Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, Flores, and Ceram. Between Sumatra and Java, the largest two of these islands, there is a channel called the Straits of Sunda that connects the waters of the Indian Ocean with those of the Pacific Ocean. The Straits of Sunda is an important piece of water that forms one of the great highways to the East. Shipping is, therefore, always to be found in its waters.As can be seen by the map, Krakatoa is not far from the Equator, being situated in lat. 6° 7 S. and long. 105° 26 E. from Greenwich. Since there are about sixty-nine[Pg 2] miles in every degree of latitude, Krakatoa is about 420 miles south of the Equator, and is about twenty-five miles from Java. Java is part of the Dutch East Indies, which includes Java, Celebes, the Spice Islands, and parts of Borneo and Sumatra. Batavia, the principal seaport of Java, near the northwest coast, is a great shipping centre, visited by vessels from nearly all parts of the world. It has, however, no harbor, but is approached from the ocean by means of a canal two miles in length, the sides of which are provided with massive brick walls. Besides Batavia, which is situated about one hundred English miles east of Krakatoa, there are many smaller towns or villages, the most important of which is Anjer, a thriving seaport town, where sailing vessels obtain their supplies of food and fresh water.